MeThink: Broken Windows Theory

Read it on Reason and Economist recently. It is about the low-form delinquency like graffiti, littering or subway fare jumping can actually spread the disorder… Can’t help but thinking, based on personal experience anedoctally, it is true for the case in Japan and Singapore: both countries are almost free from graffiti and have extremely low crime rate! And speaking of graffiti and subway fare-jumping, it is not uncommon here in Stockholm…

Prisoner Rate 1987 – 2002: Belgium, Ireland, Luxembourg, Netherlands

Prisoner rate (per 100 000 population) for countries Luxembourg, Netherlands, Ireland, and Belgium for year 1987 – 2002:

Year Belgium Ireland (Eire) Luxembourg Netherlands
1987 67.8 54.6 33.5
1988 65.6 55.2 99.6 42.4
1989 67.3 56.3 92.5 41.5
1990 65.7 60.2 101.1 46.1
1991 61.9 60.0 94.3 48.5
1992 68.4 60.6 103.9 49.4
1993 74.3 78.4 105.0 52.6
1994 74.0 57.3 111.9 56.8
1995 74.6 56.4 110.6 75.1
1996 79.2 59.0 102.7 85.4
1997 80.4 66.2 105.2 87.2
1998 79.8 70.8 91.9 84.9
1999 80.2 73.3 89.2 83.7
2000 83.9 76.2 91.2 86.9
2001 83.2 78.5 77.2 93.3
2002 85.2 77.3 100.6

Prisoner Rate 1987 – 2002: Austria, France, Germany, Switzerland

Prisoner rate (per 100 000 population) for countries France, Germany, Austria, and Switzerland for year 1987 – 2002:

Year Austria France Germany Switzerland
1987 97.6 91.0 52.7
1988 86.2 83.1 71.0
1989 82.6 80.3 70.9
1990 84.4 83.6 64.4 75.6
1991 85.9 85.3 66.2 79.0
1992 87.4 86.0 73.9 79.1
1993 88.8 88.7 73.7 81.1
1994 84.8 92.8 74.0 81.2
1995 76.8 91.5 74.8 80.3
1996 84.1 92.5 79.0 77.5
1997 86.0 92.9 82.9 76.6
1998 85.3 91.1 85.2 79.4
1999 85.0 92.0 84.3 81.4
2000 84.6 82.9 85.5 79.7
2001 87.8 79.4 85.3 71.4
2002 89.6 86.1 68.5

Prisoner Rate 1987 – 2002: Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain

Prisoner rate (per 100 000 population) for countries Spain, Portugal, Italy and Greece for year 1987 – 2002:

Year Greece Italy Portugal Spain
1987 38.1 60.0 84.3 69.5
1988 41.6 60.4 81.9 74.5
1989 45.5 53.2 86.5 79.6
1990 50.5 56.5 91.8 84.8
1991 51.9 57.3 82.0 93.6
1992 63.7 81.3 92.1 105.0
1993 68.2 90.2 111.0 116.0
1994 55.3 91.6 100.2 123.1
1995 54.8 86.4 117.9 115.3
1996 49.2 85.8 136.6 112.8
1997 51.8 88.8 140.4 110.5
1998 65.8 86.4 141.5 113.7
1999 69.1 93.7 128.6 137.2
2000 73.6 95.7 124.5 112.8
2001 76.2 97.9 128.3 114.7
2002 75.4 132.8 122.3

Source:

Prisoner Rate 1987 – 2002: Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden

Prisoner rate (per 100 000 population) for countries Finland, Denmark, Norway and Sweden for year 1987 – 2002:

Year Denmark Finland Norway Sweden
1987

62.2

86.2

48.3

56.9

1988 65.5 82.0 50.2 64.3
1989 65.8 75.0 52.2 62.1
1990 62.4 65.2 56.5 61.9
1991 66.0 68.4 59.8 60.4
1992 65.9 63.0 57.8 60.6
1993 64.9 67.7 61.5 65.3
1994 67.4 65.3 61.6 70.7
1995 65.4 60.5 59.9 71.2
1996 60.7 63.4 59.4 65.2
1997 60.0 55.2 57.6 59.0
1998 63.0 53.8 55.6 59.8
1999 65.7 51.6 56.3 61.9
2000 60.7 55.8 57.0 64.0
2001 58.0 59.9 58.4 68.4
2002 63.3 66.7 60.9 72.9

Prisoner Rate 1987 – 2002: Australia, Canada, New Zealand, US

Prisoner rate (per 100 000 population) for countries New Zealand, Australia, US, and Canada for year 1987 – 2002:

Year Australia U.S.A. New Zealand Canada
1987 74.5 352.1 94.4 105.9
1988 74.0 386.3 104.3 104.3
1989 75.5 433.7 112.6 104.9
1990 83.8 461.9 123.9 109.3
1991 86.9 483.4 122.4 109.6
1992 88.9 507.7 123.7 112.8
1993 89.8 530.9 128.7 114.3
1994 94.9 567.2 121.9 112.1
1995 96.4 603.4 127.5 117.4
1996 99.4 620.5 133.5 117.1
1997 103.3 651.5 136.2 112.5
1998 106.4 672.2 142.8 108.2
1999 113.8 694.2 147.5 106.5
2000 113.4 687.9 148.2 103.0
2001 115.7 689.7 151.5 101.7
2002 114.5 701.2 145.6

Source: International Comparisons of Criminal Justice Statistics 2001

Japan Crime Trend 1995-2006: Robbery, Burglary

Crime trend in Japan from year 1995 to 2006 on:

c) Robbery rate (per 100 000 population)
d) Burglary rate (per 100 000 population)

Source: Japanese Statistical Yearbook, Justice and Police

Japan Crime Trend 1995-2006: Homicide, Rape

Crime trend in Japan from year 1995 to 2006 on:

a) Homicide rate (per 100 000 population)
b) Rape rate (per 100 000 population)

Australia Crime Trend 1994-2005: Robbery, Burglary, Motor Vehicle Theft

Crime trend in Australia from year 1994 to 2005 on:

c) Robbery rate (per 100 000 population)
d) Burglary rate (per 100 000 population)
e) Motor vehicle theft (per 100 000 population)

Source: Australian Insitute of Criminology

Australia Crime Trend 1994-2005: Homicide, Assault

Crime trend in Australia from year 1994 to 2005 on:

a) Homicide rate (per 100 000 population)
b) Assault rate (per 100 000 population)

Source: Australian Insitute of Criminology

Finland Crime Trend 1992-2006: Assault, Motor Vehicle Theft

Crime trend in Finland from year 1992-2006 on:

c) Assault rate (per 100 000 population)
d) Motor vehicle theft rate (per 100 000 population)

Source: The National Research Institute of Legal Policy, Finland

Finland Crime Trend 1992-2006: Homicide, Rape

Crime trend in Finland from year 1992 to 2006 on:

a) Homicide rate (per 100 000 population)
b) Rape rate (per 100 000 population)

Source: The National Research Institute of Legal Policy, Finland

Canada Crime Trend 1991-2005: Assault, Motor Vehicle Theft

Crime trend in Canada from year 1991-2005 on:

e) Assault rate (per 100 000 population)
f) Motor vehicle theft rate (per 100 000 population)

Source: Crime Statistic in Canada, Juristat

Canada Crime Trend 1991-2005: Robbery, Burglary

Crime trend in Canada from year 1991-2005 on:

c) Robbery rate (per 100 000 population)
d) Burglary rate (per 100 000 population)

Source: Crime Statistic in Canada, Juristat

Canada Crime Trend 1991-2005: Homicide, Sexual Assault

Crime trend in Canada from year 1991 to 2005 on:

a) Homicide rate (per 100 000 population)
b) Sexual assault (per 100 000 population)

Source: Crime Statistic in Canada, Juristat

Homicide Trend 1970-2005 for US, UK and Sweden

Homicide rate (homicide cases per 100 000 population) trend comparison for 3 countries: US, UK and Sweden for year from 1970 to 2005.

Weekly Highlight: 09.10.2007

Netherlands: Orang utans also have their preferences… 😛

Oranutan prefers tattooed blondes
Monday 08 October 2007

Sibu, a male orangutan at the Apenheul ape centre in Apeldoorn, is being moved back to Britain because he only shows interest in tattooed human blonde women and refuses to mate.
‘This can happen when an ape is raised by humans. Now he is lonely and that is a real shame,’ said spokeswoman Anouk Ballot in Saturday’s Parool.

errr, blonde is understandable, but why tattooed? 😛

Norway: they are worry about being worst among Scandinavia on…

Worst in Scandinavia
First published: 05 Oct 2007, 13:13

A study of Nordic police readiness reveals that Norway is the weakest of the
PF leader Arne Johannessen.
Norway has the fewest police officers per capita in Scandinavia. Denmark and Sweden have 509 and 511 inhabitants per police officer respectively, with Norway a distant third with 592, newspaper Dagsavisen reports.
Johannessen called for more recruits for the police academy and civilian assistance for certain tasks such as the transport of prisoners.
A government representative said that addition police funding and increased admission to the academy were being done, and that the suggestion for civilians taking on certain police tasks was of interest.

On relevant note, here is some crime trend in Norway from year 1993 to 2006: homicide & rape, robbery & burglary, assault & motor vehicle theft.

Sweden:

Needle exchanges ineffective in battle against HIV
Published: 8th October 2007 08:13 CET

Access to free hypodermic needles has not reduced the spread of HIV, according to new research from Skåne.
The majority of drug addicts do not make use of the opportunity to exchange needles, while those that do also continue to share needles with other users, Svenska Dagbladet reports.
During all this time, the issue has remained controversial. Opponents of needle exchange programmes argue that there have not been shown there to be any positive effects. Many also consider it morally questionable for the state to supply the tools for an illegal enterprise.
Supporters of the scheme counter that clean needles can save lives. Such programmes also provides an opportunity for healthcare workers to come into contact with a notoriously reticent group, allowing them to help those who wish to stop using narcotics.

Denmark:

Open attitudes toward foreign co-workers
08.10.2007

A new survey has indicated that Danes have become much more open to working with foreigners than in the past.
Half of all Danes believe that working with foreign colleagues enriches society, according to a new Analyse Danmark/Ugebrevet A4 survey.
‘When unemployment was high, foreigners were seen as people who would take jobs away from Danes,’ he said. ‘But with the strong employment possibilities available now, we instead view foreigners as workers who can fill vacancies and ensure that our companies can remain competitive.’
Support for foreign labour is not limited to supporters of specific political parties, according to the poll, and is evidenced across a widespread segment of employees in both the private and public sectors.

Finland: they don’t mind about higher tax…

Finns Willing To Pay More Tax For Social Services
Published 08.10.2007, 11.34 (updated 08.10.2007, 20.15)

A survey published by the Social Insurance Institution of Finland, shows that 80 percent of Finns would be ready to pay higher taxes, if the money were to go to into healthcare services. In general, people would rather see higher taxes than a deterioration in social benefits.
Nearly 40 percent backed more funding for labour market supports, such as unemployment benefits, although this world require that middle-income groups would pay around 10 euros a month more in taxes. About one-third considered the present level of labour market supports good as is.
Finns were found to be critical of income gaps. Most respondents would reduce income gaps by raising wages and salaries for people in jobs such as cleaners, nurses and school teachers. Nearly half would back steeper progression for the income tax scale.

Denmark Crime Trend 1995-2003: Assault, Motor Vehicle Theft

More on crime trend in Denmark from year 1995-2006 on:

e) Assault rate (per 100 000 population)
f) Motor vehicle theft (per 100 000 population)

Source: Statistic Denmark – Social Condition, Health and Justice

Denmark Crime Trend 1995-2006: Robbery, Burglary

Crime trend in Denmark from year 1995 to 2006 on:

c) Robbery rate (per 100 000 population)
d) Burglary rate (per 100 000 population)

Source: Statistic Denmark – Social Condition, Health and Justice

 

Denmark Crime Trend 1995-2006: Homicide, Rape

Crime trend in Denmark from year 1995 to 2006 on:

a) Homicide rate (per 100 000 population)
b) Rape rate (per 100 000 population)

Source: Statistic Denmark, Social condition, Health and Justice

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