Average Math Score for Grade-Eighth Student, 2007 by Country (TIMSS)

Grade 8, Average score by Country

World: Population vs Happiness, Satisfaction with Life

Will the population of a country has any correlation with the subjective feeling like happiness or satisfaction of life? Apparently from the graphs below, the answer is yes.

a) Population vs “How happy are you?” among OECD countries, year 2002-2004:

Rsquare=0.396 (moderately strong and negative correlation) at p=0.0017.

b) Population vs “% of people say ‘very happy'” among selected world countries:

Rsquare=0.173 (weak negative correlation) at p=0.013.

c) Population vs “satisfaction with life” among selected world countries:

Rsquare=0.332 (moderately strong negative correlation) at p=0.0002.

However, it is also noted that as shown earlier in previous post, the GDP per capita decrease along with increment of population (log 10) while Gini increase with population. So the relationship will probably go along the line such as: high population -> lower GDP pe capita/high Gini -> lower happiness score/life satisfaction score.

Note: Symbol and colours used in graph

“+” is Iceland, “x” is US
Red: GDP<$15 000
Black: $15 000 < GDP < $25 000
Blue: GDP > $25 000

World: Morale – Summary

A look back to the morale issues questioned in World Values Survey in OECD and selected Asia countries:

  1. Justifiable: Claiming government benefit
  2. Justifiable: Avoiding fare in public transport
  3. Justifiable: Cheating on taxes
  4. Justifiable: Someone accepts bribe
  5. Justifiable: Homosexuality
  6. Justifiable: Prostitution
  7. Justifiable: Abortion
  8. Justifiable: Divorce
  9. Justifiable: Euthanasia
  10. Justifiable: Suicide

In the coming days, the post about the scores on these morale subjects correlated to the score of religiosity of each country as discussed earlier on will be put here. The question will be used in these posts to show the religiosity of each country is: “How is God important in your life?”, with the score ran from 1 to 10.

World: Morale – Suicide

Following the World Morale series, the next question such as below was asked in World Values Survey:

Justifiable: Suicide

The answer in the scale form was given, running from 1-10, 1 being “never justifiable” and 10 being “always justifiable”. The mean score given from all the participants in the respective country is shown in the graphs below:

1) OECD/developed countries:

Compared to euthanasia, people’s acceptance towards suicide is lower. However, people in countries like Netherlands, France, Sweden, Luxembourg and Switzerland are giving higher score compared to others, in terms of whether is suicide justifiable or not. On the other hand, most of the people in Hungary, Mexico, Ireland, Iceland and Portugal are thinking  that suicide is “never justifiable” (their scores closed to 1).

2) Selected Asia countries:

In Asia, Japan and Korea, which incidentally have high suicide rate (among OECD countries), are scoring 3.03 and 2.77 point respectively, ranked highest among the selected countries. On the other hand, people in Islamic countries like Bangladesh, Indonesia, Egypt, Saudi Arabia think that suicide is “never justifiable”.

An interesting note is that is there any correlation on the opinion on suicide and euthanasia? The graph below shows the scatter-plot between these 2 opinions’ scores:

There is a moderately strong and positive correlation (Rsquare=0.623) between “euthanasia” and “suicide”: the more people’s opinion in acceptance towards euthanasia, the same will go for their opinion on suicide as well. However, the opinion of “suicide is justifiable” is consistently lower than “euthanasia is justifiable”.

Update: The opinion on suicide should be compared to the actual suicide rate (2004) in these countries as well, as shown in the graph below:

There is no correlation between what is people’s attitude towards suicide and the actual suicide rate among OECD countries. As a matter of fact, even though most of the Hungrarian think that suicide is not justifiable, however their suicide rate is the highest among the selectec countries here. On the other hand, people in Netherlands and Sweden who were thinking that suicide is more “justifiable” than other countries have lower suicide rate: 4.36 and 4.11 persons per 100 000 population, in year 2004.

World: Morale – Euthanasia

Continuing in the World Morale series, next, this question was asked in World Values Survey:

Justifiable: Euthanasia

The answer in the scale form was given, running from 1-10, 1 being “never justifiable” and 10 being “always justifiable”. The mean score given from all the participants in the respective country is shown in the graphs below:

1) OECD/developed countries:

People in Netherlands, Denmark, Japan, New Zealand, Switzerland, Australia, France and Sweden scored more than 6 points out of 10 on the issue of euthanasia: most of them agreed that euthanasia is justifiable. On the other hand, people in Ireland, Mexico, Portugal, South Africa and Hungary think the otherwise, thus their score is low, around 3.

2) Selected Asia countries:

Among the selected Asia countries, Japan is the only country scored such a high point (agreeing towards that euthanasia is justifiable). Perhaps it was due to the society aging pressure? On the other hand, Islamic countries like Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia and Saudi Arabia are strongly disagree that euthanasia is justifiable. Their scores are less than 2.

World: Morale – Divorce

Next, the following question was asked in World Values Survey:

Justifiable: Divorce

The answer in the scale form was given, running from 1-10, 1 being “never justifiable” and 10 being “always justifiable”. The mean score given from all the participants in the respective country is shown in the graphs below:

1) OECD/developed countries:

Most of the people in countries like Sweden, Denmark, Netherlands, Finland and Iceland think that divorce is a justifiable morale issue, while people in South Africa, Hungary, Mexico and Korea slightly disagree on that. It is interesting to compare their opinion and the actual divorce data, which will be shown below.

2) Selected Asia countries:

On the other hand, people in Japan, Egypt (surprise), Korea and Saudi Arabia are showing more acceptance attitude towards divorce. Surprisingly Singaporeans are scoring lower point compared to Egypt and Saudi Arabia. People in Bangladesh, Indonesia, Vietnam and China, however, still think that divorce is not always justifiable.

The graph below shows the plot of divorce rate (number of divorce per 1000 pop.) vs the opinion on divorce in each country:

The graph shows a moderate positive correlation between actual divorce rate and the opinion on is divorce justifiable (Rsquare=0.157, F ratio=0.0683): the more people think that divorce is justifiable (mean score closer to 10), higher divorce rate is seen. One exception country would be Ireland: their opinion on divorce is leaning towards “always justifiable” (score=6.55), but their divorce rate is very low, as low as 0.8 couple divorce per 1000 population.  

World: Morale – Abortion

Continuing on the World Morale series, this morale question was asked in World Values Survey:

Justifiable: Abortion

The answer in the scale form was given, running from 1-10, 1 being “never justifiable” and 10 being “always justifiable”. The mean score given from all the participants in the respective country is shown in the graphs below:

1) OECD/developed countries:

People in Sweden, Denmark, France, Norway, Czech Rep. are generally thinking that abortion is justifiable, while countries like Mexico, Ireland, South Africa and Korea are scoring lower points for justification in abortion issue.

2) Selected Asia countries:

Among Asia countries, Japanese is the people are more acceptive towards abortion issue, followed by Korea, India and Singapore. On the other hand, countries like Indonesia, Bangladesh, Egypt and Vietnam scored lower point, showing that there are more people opined that abortion is not always justifiable.

World: Morale – Prostitution

Continuing on the “World Morale” series, World Values Survey asked the following question:

Justifiable: Prostitution

The answer in the scale form was given, running from 1-10, 1 being “never justifiable” and 10 being “always justifiable”. The mean score given from all the participants in the respective country is shown in the graphs below:
1) OECD/developed countries:

Prostitution is deemed more justifiable in countries like Switzerland (5.32 out of 10), Spain (4.72), New Zealand (4.28) and Germany (4.31). On the other hand, most of the people in Eastern countries like Japan and Korea do not think prostitution is justifiable, along with predominantly Roman Catholics countries like Italy and Ireland

2) Selected Asia countries:

On the other hand, people in both religious and non-religious countries like Egypt, China, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Vietnam and Saudi Arabia think that prostitution is “never justifiable” (mean score close to 1). Surprisingly the predominantly Roman Catholic country like Philipines have the highest score (shift toward justifiable scale) in the opinion towards prostitution, higher than their counterpart countries like Italy and Ireland in West.

World: Morale – Homosexuality

Next, in the “world morale” series, World Values Survey asked the following question:

Justifiable: homosexuality

The answer in the scale form was given, running from 1-10, 1 being “never justifiable” and 10 being “always justifiable”. The mean score given from all the participants in the respective country is shown in the graphs below:

1) OECD/developed countries:

Most of the people in Netherlands, Sweden, Iceland, and Denmark think that homosexuality is justifiable (closer to score 10- “always justifiable”), compared to countries like Hungary, Korea, South Korea and Portugal which gave low score (i.e. closer to “never justifiable”).

2) Selected Asia countries:

On the other hand, Japan has the highest score among selected Asia countries, followed by Philipines, India and Korea. The mean score in countries like Egypt, Bangladesh, Indonesia and China are showing that most of the people in the respective country think that homosexuality is never justifiable.

World: Morale – Someone Accepting Bribe

In World Values Survey, next question on morale issue was asked:

Is it justifiable for someone to accept bribe?

The answer in the scale form was given, running from 1-10, 1 being “never justifiable” and 10 being “always justifiable”. The mean score given from all the participants in the respective country is shown in the graphs below.

1) OECD/developed countries:

There are more people in Hungary think that someone accepting bribe is justifiable compared to least people think that it is never justified in countries like Denmark (1.15-close to 1 “never justifiable”), Iceland (1.27) and Australia (1.28). After Hungary, people in South Africa, Czech. Rep. and Mexico think that bribery is somewhat justifiable compared to other countries. Noted that these countries are less richer than the other countries as well.

2) Selected Asia countries:

In Asia, most of the people in Bangladesh, Egypt and Vietnam agreed that someone accepting bribery is never justifiable. On the other hand, people in Philipines gave an average score of 3.21 out of 10 on justification for this morale issue.

World: Morale – Cheating on Taxes

Following up the series in understanding the people’s opinion on morale issues, World Values Survey asked the question like below:

Is it justifiable to cheat on taxes?

The answer in the scale form was given, running from 1-10, 1 being “never justifiable” and 10 being “always justifiable”. The mean score given from all the participants in the respective country is shown in the graphs below:

1) OECD/developed countries:

On average, Belgian gave 3.66 score out of 10, followed by people in Luxembourg (3.38), Greece (3.16) and France (3.06) to think that it is justifiable to cheat on taxes. If we look at their taxation rate here, it is not surprised to note that Belgian wants to cheat on tax (tax rate 55.4% for single person and 40.1% for family of 2 kids). On the other hand, the people in lower tax rate countries like Korea and Japan do not think that cheating on tax is justifiable. I guess may be they realized that the tax is not high enough to be cheated in the first place. Well, may be a regression plot between tax rate and the result above should be made and compared.

2) Selected Asia countries:

So, there are more people in Philipines think that cheating on taxes is justifiable compared to India and Singapore. On the other hand, most of the people in Bangladesh and Vietnam think that cheating on taxes is never be justifiable (the mean score is very close to 1).

As mentioned earlier, the taxation rate of each country is compared to the opinion of general public on the justification on cheating tasex: 2 types of taxation rate is compared here (a) single person (average earner bracket) and (b) family with 2 kids (average earner bracket). The scatter/regression plots are shown as below:
a) Single person:

b) Family with 2 kids:

Single person taxation rate is seemed to having greater impact on the cheating-on-taxes-justification opinion (Rsquare=0.358) than family with 2 kids earners.  

World: Morale – Avoiding Fare in Public Transport

In the series of finding out the opinion of the people in OECD/developed and Asia countries, the morale issue question like below was asked in World Values Survey:

Is it justifiable to avoid fare on public transport?

The answer in the scale form was given, running from 1-10, 1 being “never justifiable” and 10 being “always justifiable”. The mean score given from all the participants in the respective country is shown in the graphs below.

1) OECD/developed countries:

People in Mexico, Greece and Czech think it is slightly okay or justifiable to avoid fare in public transport compared to other OECD countries, and my suspect would be probably due to their lower income/GDP. However, I am surprised to see that Netherlands (relatively richer) is ranking 4th place after Czech. On the other hand, People in Japan, Denmark, Noway think that it is most likely not justifiable to cheat on public transport fare. One interesting I would want to know if the fare amount will influence people’s opinion on avoiding fare: if the fare is deemed too expensive, will they justified the cheating?

2) Selected Asia countries:

Among the selected Asia countries above, people in Philipines think that it is justifiable to cheat on public transport fare compared to others. This is followed by Korean and Saudi Arabian. On the other hand, people in relatively poor country like Bangladesh and VietNam do not think it is justifiable to avoid fare in public transport. Income was not the issue/factor? 

World: Morale – Claiming Government Benefit

In World Values Survey, the question on morale issue such as below was asked:

Is it justifiable to claim government benefit?

The option on the answer was given in the scale run from 1 to 10, whereby 1 is “never justifiable” and 10 being “always justifiable”. The value shown in the graph below is the mean score of all the answers given by participants in the respective country.

1) OECD/Europe:

There are more people in Greece, Mexico, and France think that it is okay to claim government benefit, while people in country like Denmark, Netherland, Norway claims the otherwise.

2) Selected Asia countries:

There are quite a lot of the Indonesians think that it is justifiable to claim government benefits, followed by Philipines and Singapore. On the other hand, most of the people in Bangladesh, Egypt and Japan think it is not justifiable.

World: Religiosity (V) – Church

Continuing from the previous post about the role of church, the World Values Survey also asked the questions as below:

  1. Do churches give answers to people’s spiritual need?
  2. Do churches give answers to the social problems?

The “yes” answer given by the participants in OECD countries are shown in the graphs below:

Most of the people in Mexico, South Africa and US think that churches do give answers to people’s spiritual need. This is particularly true for most of the Catholic-dominant countries, like Portugal and Italy. On the other hand, most of the Japanese (only 34.1% of them) do not think churches/religion instituition in their country give answers. The same goes to Luxembourg, Belgium and Netherlands. On average, 61.3% of all the participants agreed that churches give answers to people’s spiritual need.

Next, what does people think of the role of churches in social problems? On average, only 30.3% of all the interviewees here think that churches have their role in social problems tackling. Among them, 62.2% of South African, 53.9% of Mexican and 45.6% of American think that churches give answers to social problems. On the hand, only 7.1% Japanese, 11.5% Danish and 15.5% Czech people agreed so.

Let’s look at the numbers from the selected Asia countries:

Again, in the Islam-predominant countries like Egypt, Indonesia and Saudi Arabia, their religion instituitions is believed by their people to give answers to both people’s spiritual need and social problems.

World: Religiosity (IV) – Church

In World Values Survey, the questions below were asked:

  1. Do churches give answers to moral problems?
  2. Do churches give answers to family life problems?

The graphs below here show the percentage of people say “yes” among OECD countries.

Most of the people in Mexico (73.4%), South Africa (69.1%) and Italy (61.8%) thinks that churches do give answers to the moral problems. On the other hand, Only sizable people in Japan (19.8%) believes that churches (religion organization?) provide answer to moral problems, followed closely by Denmark (20.0%) and Sweden (26.3%). On special note is that even Ireland has very high belief in God (see previous posts), but they do not believe that churches can give answers.  

Move to next question, again, most of the people in Mexico, South Africa and US believes that churches give answers to family life problems. On contrary, only 15.0% of people in Denmark think that churches give answers, closely followed by Japan (16.0%) and Sweden (18.3%). Surprisingly Czech rep., an ex-communist country which has about 39% of people believe in God (the lowest rank among these countries) has quite high number of people think of the role of the churches.

Then, let’s have a look at Asia countries. Churches here would mean the established religion instituition in the respective country. People in Egypt, Saudi Arabia and Indonesia has extremely high number of people think that their religion institutions give answers to moral and family problems.

World: Religiosity (III) – Belief in Heaven and Hell

Continuing for the world religiosity series, next 2 questions in World Values Survey:

  1. Do you believe in Heaven?
  2. Do you believe in Hell?

The graphs below depict the yes response in percentage of total participants:

The highest percentage of people believe in heaven includes South African (90.7%), American (87.5%), and Ireland (85.6%). The lowest would go to Denmark (18.4%), Czech (20.6%) and Hungary (29.2%) of them said that they believe in heaven.

On the other hand, when asked do they believe in hell, 79.7% Irish say yes, followed by Iceland (78.2%) and Mexican (74.6%). At the another end of spectrum, only 9.4% of Swedish, 9.5% of Danish and 13.1% of Czech people believe there is hell.

One very interesting note is that for the same group of people, the percentage of people believe in heaven is consistently higher than those who believe in hell. The graph below shows the difference in terms of percentage of people who believe in heaven compared to hell, by simple substraction formulae:

Apart from UK, Germany west, Mexico, Greece, Italy and Iceland (there are more people who believe in hell than heaven, surprise!), the other countries are showing very high discrepancy in numbers for those who believe in heaven than believe in hell. Pretty much it is saying that people are more readily to believe there is a heaven, but quite reluctantly to acknowledge there is hell, if such duality is a common understanding, as much as the Christianity teaching in west, so does the concept of hell in East-Sino philosophy.

As a comparison to the developed countries in the west, the numbers in the belief in Hell and Heaven among selected Asia countries are shown in the graph below:

The people in Islamic countries like Egypt, Indonesia and Saudi Arabia are overwhelmingly believe there is hell and heaven. However, as consistent to the observation to the developed countries, there is always more people believe in heaven than hell. The same goes to Philipines, Singapore, India and Japan. Viet Nam has a little bit more people believe in hell than in heaven.

So, why there is more people willing to believe there is heaven than hell? Could it be that if there is no hell, there will be no punishment/suffering? Any suggestion?

World: Religiosity (III) – Belief in Life after Death

From World Values Survey: “Do you believe in Life afte Death?”. The number depicted in the graph below is the percentage of people say yes.

 
OECD and Europe countries.

81.1% of American believes that there is life after death, followed by Ireland (79.7%), Iceland (78.2%). On the other hand, most of the people in ex-communist country like Hungary and Czech Rep. do not believe there is such thing. Only 32.8% Hungarian and 35.9% of Czech people believe in it.

Asia countries’ survey result here:

Countries with the predominantly Muslim have almost all the people belief in Life after death, e.g. Egypt, Indonesia, and Saudi Arabia. Viet Nam, on the other hand, being a communist country, has least number of people believe in life after death. Only 16 out of 100 people professed they believe in it.

Source: World Values Survey

World: Extra-marital Affair

Saw this in Economist: Extra-marital affair number (confession) around the world! Originally from Durex Sex Survey 2005. The number is % of the adult interviewed admitted that they have extra-marital affair.

Finland 36%? Hmmm, I better watch out my husband closely… 😛

World: Religiosity (II) – Belief in God

The question “Do you believe in God” was asked in World Values Survey (WVS).

1. In World Values Survey, the participants in the selected countries will answer the question in basically 2 categorical answers: Yes or No. The year the surveys in each country were conducted during year 1998-2002.


98.8% of South African say yes, they believe in God, while followed by Mexico 98.0%, Portugese 96.4%, United States and Ireland 95.7%. Ex-communist country Czech Rep. has the lowest number of people said they believe in God. People in Japan, Sweden, Netherlands and France also are least likely to believe in God.

And compare it to the selected Asia countries:

In Asia, the people in Islamic countries like Egypt, Indonesia and Saudi Arabia are overwhelmingly professed that they believe in God. Vietnam being a communist country, only 18.8% of Vietnamese believe in God.  

The scatter-plot below here shows the correlation between the percentage of people say they belief in God vs How is God important in your life (mean score of scale 1-10, 10 being very important) in OECD countries:

Source:

  1. World Values Survey

Rice (Part II): Crop Yield and Price

 

Top 3 rice crop yield:

Albania, Egypt and Australia (hmmm, the rich and developed nations do not neccessarily be producing higher yield with the help of R&D and technology?)

Malaysia: 3325.9 kg/Ha [2004]

Bottom 3 rice crop yield:

Republic of Congo, Democrat Republic of Congo and Malawi. (phew*sigh relief*, Malaysia is not in the list)

Top 3 rice producer price:

Japan, Turkmenistan and Zimbabwe. It is not surprise to know that Japanese produces very expensive rice: scarcity of the land pretty much tell the whole story.

Malaysia: USD190.00 per tonne [2003]

Bottom 3 rice producer price:

Brazil, Suriname, and Russia. Just compare the price between the top (Japan) and lowest (Brazil). It is such a huge difference!

More on Rice:

Part I: Production, Import, Export

Part III: Consumption 

source: FAOStat

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