What does Toxicologist think of Chemical Hazard?

of High Risk %
HI % by Risk Level of Specific Chemical

What American Needs 2006

What American Needs 2006

US Teenage Birthrate by Race: 1989 – 2006

White, Black, and Hispanic 1989 to 2006

US Daily Newspaper Changes % 2008

Change % by Newspaper

US Daily Newspaper Circulation 2008

Circulation by Newspaper

Prisoner Rate 1987 – 2002: Australia, Canada, New Zealand, US

Prisoner rate (per 100 000 population) for countries New Zealand, Australia, US, and Canada for year 1987 – 2002:

Year Australia U.S.A. New Zealand Canada
1987 74.5 352.1 94.4 105.9
1988 74.0 386.3 104.3 104.3
1989 75.5 433.7 112.6 104.9
1990 83.8 461.9 123.9 109.3
1991 86.9 483.4 122.4 109.6
1992 88.9 507.7 123.7 112.8
1993 89.8 530.9 128.7 114.3
1994 94.9 567.2 121.9 112.1
1995 96.4 603.4 127.5 117.4
1996 99.4 620.5 133.5 117.1
1997 103.3 651.5 136.2 112.5
1998 106.4 672.2 142.8 108.2
1999 113.8 694.2 147.5 106.5
2000 113.4 687.9 148.2 103.0
2001 115.7 689.7 151.5 101.7
2002 114.5 701.2 145.6

Source: International Comparisons of Criminal Justice Statistics 2001

US Marriage and Divorce Rates: 1970 – 2004

Marriage and divorce rates (per 1000 population) in US from year 1970 to 2004:

Source: OECD Index of Statistical Variables – Population, Marriage and Divorce

MeThink: No Dark Skin for Fashion Magazine Cover?

First of all, I don’t read fashion magazine. Naturally, it did not occur to me to think so until I read this article from Denmark: Fashion mags steer clear of dark skin.  Well, at least that is at least true in Denmark, according to the article.

Fear of low sales prevent editors from putting dark-skinned models on the covers of women’s magazines.
Dark-skinned models do not often grace the covers of fashion magazines in Denmark. In fact, according to a questionnaire by MetroXpress newspaper, they don’t appear on front covers at all.
Weeklies and monthlies such as Alt for Damerne, Woman, Q, Bazar, Sirene and Eurowoman have not had any women of colour on their covers in the past year.
According to Karen Klitgaard Povlsen, media expert at Århus University, Danish society is still very much a ‘white society’ and not many Danes are interested in other concepts of beauty other than their own, which is ‘white and slim’.
Sirene fashion magazine, targeted at women below 30, had a dark-skinned model on their cover once, but said sales were affected so much that the attempt was never repeated.
Fear of slumping sales and aiming for specific target groups were reasons most editors gave when questioned why only ethnic Danish cover models are used.
Camilla Kjems, editor-in-chief of Q and Bazar magazines, has never assigned a cover girl of colour and said: ‘The industry is very narrow-minded and I’ve never come across models of ethnic minorities. It’s thought-provoking.’
She said she would like to put a dark-skinned woman on one of her covers, but feared that magazine sales would fall.
Hanne Højberg, editor-in-chief of Alt for Damerne, concurred and said that it was important the cover models reflected their readers. The target group for her magazine are well-educated Danish women between 20 and 40 years old.
She added that the magazine has had interviews with women from ethnic minorities, but the cover needed to have a broader appeal.

Well, if that is the case in Denmark, what about other place? There, with the help of google, I managed to do some searching and the results are: 

1. Vogue.uk on its Cover archive.
Year: January 1996 – March 2008
Total Issues: 147
# of dark skin model/actress appearance: 5 times. And all of them is Naomi Campbell.
i.  June 1996.
ii. January 1998.
iii. February 2001.
iv. October 2001 – featured together with P. Diddy.
v. August 2002.

2. Vogue, US
Year: December 2003 – March 2008
Total Issues: 52
# of dark skin model/actress appearance: 2 time.
i. March 2007 – Jennifer Hudson.
ii. May 2005 – Liya Kebede

3. Elle, US
Year: February 2004 – March 2008
Total Issues: 50
# of dark skin model/actress appearance: 2 or 4?
i.  May 2005 – Alicia Keys.
ii. September 2005 – Jennifer Lopez (Hispanic American).
iii.April 2006 – Shakira (?)
iv. December 2006 – Beyonce.

4. Cosmopolitan, US
Year: January 2004 – March 2008
Total Issues: 51
# of dark skin model/actress appearance: 2 times.
i.  February 2006 – Beyonce.
ii. March 2008 – Rihanna.

5. In Style, US
Year: January 2004 – March 2008
Total Issues: 51
# of dark skin model/actress appearance: 7 times.
i.   January 2004 – Beyonce.
ii.  August 2004 – Jennifer Lopez (Hispanic American).
iii. September 2004 – Halle Berry.
iv. March 2005 – Queen Latifah.
v.  January 2007 – Beyonce.
vi. April 2007 – Halle Berry.
vii. February 2008 – Halle Berry.

6. Marie Claire, US
Year: January 2004 – March 2008
Total Issues: 51
# of dark skin model/actress appearance: 1?
i.   December 2005 – Rosario Dawson (Hispanic American).

US: Teenage Pregnancy Rate, Birth Rate and Abortion Rate 1972 – 2005

The trend of US teenage (aged 15 – 19) pregnancy rate, birth rate and abortion rate (per 1000 women aged 15 – 19) for year 1972 to 2005:

Year Birth Rate Abortion Rate Pregnancy Rate
1972 61.7 19.1 95.1
1973 59.3 22.8 96.1
1974 57.5 27.0 98.8
1975 55.6 31.2 101.1
1976 52.8 34.3 101.1
1977 52.8 37.5 104.6
1978 51.5 39.7 105.4
1979 52.3 42.4 109.4
1980 53.2 42.8 111.0
1981 52.2 42.9 109.9
1982 52.4 42.7 109.8
1983 51.4 43.2 109.3
1984 50.6 42.9 107.9
1985 51.0 43.5 109.0
1986 50.2 42.3 106.7
1988 53.0 43.5 111.4
1989 57.3 42.0 114.9
1990 60.3 40.5 116.9
1991 61.8 37.4 115.3
1992 60.3 35.2 111.0
1993 59.0 33.9 108.0
1994 58.2 31.6 104.6
1995 56.0 29.4 99.6
1996 53.5 28.6 95.6
1997 51.3 27.1 91.4
1998 50.3 25.8 88.7
1999 48.8 24.7 85.7
2000 47.7 24.0 83.6
2001 45.3 22.8 79.5
2002 43.0 21.7 75.4
2003 41.6
2004 41.1
2005 40.5
2006 41.9

Or depicted in the graph:
 

Source:
1. Guttmacher Institute: U.S. Teenage Pregnancy Statistics National and State Trends and Trends by Race and Ethnicity (Table 2.1)
2. US CDC: Recent Trends in Teenage Pregnancy in the United States, 1990-2002

US: Abortion Rate 1996 by States

Abortion rate (abortions per 1000 women aged 15-44) in US by states for year 1996:

States / 1996
Alabama : 15.5
Alaska : 14.2
Arizona : 19.2
Arkansas : 11.2
California : 32.8
Colorado : 19.9
Connecticut : 21.9
Delaware : 24.0
District of Columbia : 104.5
Florida : 30.7
Georgia : 20.8
Hawaii : 26.8
Idaho : 6.1
Illinois : 25.3
Indiana : 11.1
Iowa : 9.3
Kansas : 18.6
Kentucky : 9.5
Louisiana : 14.5
Maine : 9.8
Maryland : 26.2
Massachusetts : 28.8
Michigan : 22.1
Minnesota : 13.7
Mississippi : 7.1
Missouri : 9.0
Montana : 15.4
Nebraska : 12.2
Nevada : 41.7
New Hampshire : 12.9
New Jersey : 34.9
New Mexico : 14.1
New York : 39.7
North Carolina : 19.5
North Dakota : 9.2
Ohio : 17.1
Oklahoma : 11.6
Oregon : 21.2
Pennsylvania : 15.0
Rhode Island : 23.3
South Carolina : 11.4
South Dakota : 6.5
Tennessee : 14.6
Texas : 20.2
Utah : 7.5
Vermont : 17.3
Virginia : 19.0
Washington : 20.9
West Virgina : 6.6
Wisconsin : 12.2
Wyoming : 2.6

Source:
Guttmacher Institute:  Abortion in the United States – Incidence and Access to Services, 2005

US: Abortion Rate 2000 by States

Abortion rate (abortions per 1000 women aged 15-44) in US by states for year 2000: 

States / 2000
Alabama : 14.3
Alaska : 11.7
Arizona : 16.5
Arkansas : 9.8
California : 31.2
Colorado : 15.9
Connecticut : 21.1
Delaware : 31.3
District of Columbia : 68.1
Florida : 31.9
Georgia : 16.9
Hawaii : 22.2
Idaho : 7.0
Illinois : 23.2
Indiana : 9.4
Iowa : 9.8
Kansas : 21.4
Kentucky : 5.3
Louisiana : 13.0
Maine : 9.9
Maryland : 29.0
Massachusetts : 21.4
Michigan : 21.6
Minnesota : 13.5
Mississippi : 6.0
Missouri : 6.6
Montana : 13.5
Nebraska : 11.6
Nevada : 32.2
New Hampshire : 11.2
New Jersey : 36.3
New Mexico : 14.7
New York : 39.1
North Carolina : 21.0
North Dakota : 9.9
Ohio : 16.5
Oklahoma : 10.1
Oregon : 23.5
Pennsylvania : 14.3
Rhode Island : 24.1
South Carolina : 9.3
South Dakota : 5.5
Tennessee : 15.2
Texas : 18.8
Utah : 6.6
Vermont : 12.7
Virginia : 18.1
Washington : 20.2
West Virgina : 6.8
Wisconsin : 9.6
Wyoming : 1.0

Top 5 highest abortion rate:
– District of Columbia, New York, New Jersey, Nevada, Florida.

Top 5 lowest abortion rate:
– Wyoming, Kentucky, South Dakota, Mississippi, Missouri.

Source:
Guttmacher Institute:  Abortion in the United States – Incidence and Access to Services, 2005

US: Abortion Rate 2005 by States

Abortion rate (abortions per 1000 women aged 15-44) in US by states for year 2005:

States / 2005
Alabama : 11.9
Alaska : 13.6
Arizona : 16.0
Arkansas : 8.3
California : 27.1
Colorado : 16.1
Connecticut : 23.6
Delaware : 28.8
District of Columbia : 54.2
Florida : 26.8
Georgia : 16.3
Hawaii : 21.8
Idaho : 6.1
Illinois : 18.9
Indiana : 8.6
Iowa : 10.6
Kansas : 18.4
Kentucky : 4.4
Louisiana : 11.7
Maine : 10.5
Maryland : 31.5
Massachusetts : 19.9
Michigan : 19.4
Minnesota : 12.7
Mississippi : 4.9
Missouri : 6.9
Montana : 11.7
Nebraska : 8.9
Nevada : 27.0
New Hampshire : 11.7
New Jersey : 34.3
New Mexico : 15.7
New York : 38.2
North Carolina : 18.8
North Dakota : 9.6
Ohio : 14.9
Oklahoma : 9.5
Oregon : 17.7
Pennsylvania : 13.8
Rhode Island : 23.2
South Carolina : 7.9
South Dakota : 5.1
Tennessee : 14.4
Texas : 17.3
Utah : 6.4
Vermont : 11.7
Virginia : 16.5
Washington : 17.5
West Virgina : 6.7
Wisconsin : 8.5
Wyoming : 0.7

Top 5 highest abortion rate:
– District of Columbia, New York, New Jersey, Maryland, Delaware.

Top 5 lowest abortion rate:
– Wyoming, Kentucky, Mississippi, South Dakota, Idaho.

Source:
Guttmacher Institute:  Abortion in the United States – Incidence and Access to Services, 2005

Abortion/Birth Ratio 1980 – 2005 : US, Canada, Japan

Abortion to livebirth ratio (number of abortions per 100 livebirths) year 1980 to 2005 for US, Canada and Japan:

Source:
Robert Johnston: Abortion statistics and other data

US: Chlamydia, Gonorrhoea and Syphilis 1996 – 2006

The total number of cases and number of cases per 100 000 persons in US from year 1996 to 2006 on sexually transmitted dieseases (STDs) like:

a) Chlamydia
Year – Total / Cases per 100 000 persons
1996 – 492,631 / 190.6
1997 – 537,904 / 205.5
1998 – 614,250 / 231.8
1999 – 662,647 / 247.2
2000 – 709,452 / 251.4
2001 – 783,242 / 274.5
2002 –  834,555 / 289.4
2003 – 877,478 / 301.7
2004 – 929,462 / 316.5
2005 – 976,445 / 329.4
2006 – 1,030,911 / 347.8

b) Gonorrhoea
Year – Total / Cases per 100 000 persons
1996 – 328,169 / 121.8
1997 – 327,665 / 120.2
1998 – 356,492 / 129.2
1999 – 360,813 / 129.3
2000 – 363,136 / 128.7
2001 – 361,705 / 126.8
2002 – 351,852 / 122.0
2003 – 335,104 / 115.2
2004 – 330,132 / 112.4
2005 – 339,593 / 114.6
2006 – 358,366 / 120.9

c) Syphilis (all stages)
Year – Total / Cases per 100 000 persons
1996 – 53,240 / 19.8
1997 – 46,715 / 17.1
1998 – 38,290 / 13.9
1999 – 35,383 / 12.7
2000 – 31,618 / 11.2
2001 – 32,284 / 11.3
2002 – 32,919 / 11.4
2003 – 34,289 / 11.8
2004 – 33,422 / 11.4
2005 – 33,288 / 11.2
2006 – 36,935 / 12.5

d) Syphilis (primary and secondary)
Year – Total / Cases per 100 000 persons
1996 – 11,405 / 4.2
1997 – 8,556 / 3.1
1998 – 7,007 / 2.5
1999 – 6,617 / 2.4
2000 – 5,979 / 2.1
2001 – 6,103 / 2.1
2002 – 6,862 / 2.4
2003 – 7,177 / 2.5
2004 – 7,980 / 2.7
2005 – 8,724 / 2.9
2006 – 9,756 / 3.3

Source:
1. AVERT – STD Statistics US

OECD: Hours Worked 2005

Hours worked (hours per year per person in employment), which is deduced from the total numbers of hours worked over the year are divided by the average numbers of people in employment in OECD countries for year 2005:

Country 2005
Norway – 1360
Netherlands – 1367
Germany – 1437
Belgium – 1534
France – 1546
Denmark – 1551
Sweden – 1587
Ireland – 1638
Austria  – 1656
Switzerland – 1659
United Kingdom – 1672
Portugal – 1685
Finland – 1714
Australia – 1730
Canada – 1737
Spain – 1769
Japan – 1775
Iceland – 1794
Italy – 1801
United States – 1804
New Zealand – 1809
Greece – 2053
Korea – 2354

If translates it into weekly hour work, it would be…

Norway – 26.2
Netherlands – 26.3
Germany – 27.6
Belgium – 29.5
France – 29.7
Denmark – 29.8
Sweden – 30.5
Ireland – 31.5
Austria – 31.8
Switzerland – 31.9
United Kingdom – 32.2
Portugal – 32.4
Finland – 33.0
Australia – 33.3
Canada – 33.4
Spain – 34.0
Japan – 34.1
Iceland – 34.5
Italy – 34.6
United States – 34.7
New Zealand – 34.8
Greece – 39.5
Korea – 45.3

Source: OECD Factbook 2007 – Labour market, Employment

General Abortion Rate 1980 – 2005: US, Canada, Japan

General abortion rate (number of abortions per 1000 women age 15-44) in US, Canada and Japan from year 1980 to 2005:

Source:
Robert Johnston: Abortion statistics and other data

Assault Trend for selected OECD Countries

Assault trend seen in various OECD countries (a summary from crime trend in individual country):

a) US: 1970 – 2005
b) UK: 1970 – 2005
c) Sweden: 1970 – 2005

d) Canada: 1990 -2005
e) Japan: 1990 – 2005
f) Norway: 1993 – 2005

g) Australia: 1995 -2005
h) Denmark: 1995 – 2005
i) Finland: 1995 – 2005

So, basically my question is: other than Canada (& US trends down since 1990), why assault rate increases in most of the countries? Any thought?

Rape Trend 1970-2005 for US, UK and Sweden

Rape rate (rape cases per 100 000 population) trend comparison from year 1970 to 2005 for US, UK and Sweden:

Question: why the rape rate continues to increase? Any input?

Source:
1) US: Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics, Albany.
2) UK: Home Office, Research Development Statistic
3) Sweden: National Council for Crime Prevention

Homicide Trend 1970-2005 for US, UK and Sweden

Homicide rate (homicide cases per 100 000 population) trend comparison for 3 countries: US, UK and Sweden for year from 1970 to 2005.

US Crime Trend 1967-2005: Assault, Motor Vehicle Theft

More on the crime trend in US from year 1967-2005:

e) Assault rate (per 100 000 population)
f) Motor Vehicle Theft rate (per 100 000 population)

Source: US Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistic

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