Math! How long does it take to reach 200 million?

Instapundit ask the reader (e.g. me) to do the math exercise:

Question left as an exercise for the reader: How long, at 10,000 / day, does it take to reach 200 million?

Well, 10 000/day will make it 3.65 million/year, and 200 ÷ 3.65 = 54.79 years. So half a century (50 years) to reach 200 million, as according to … 

Ten thousand Chinese become Christians each day, according to a stunning report by the National Catholic Reporter’s veteran correspondent John Allen, and 200 million Chinese may comprise the world’s largest concentration of Christians by mid-century, and the largest missionary force in history.

So it kinda left me wonder what could make Instapundit surprised if these predictions bore out: the 200 million in half century part, or the 10 000/day part? 

Math! CO2 emission by short-distance vs long-distance flight

A reader (apparently very well knowledge in aviation) reminded me of some very crude assumption I made when calculating CO2 emission for different type of aircraft/aeroplane in the previous post. I must admit that it was not a very detailed math work. I made very bold assumptions such as taking out plane take-off phase out from whole fuel burn/CO2 emission from calculation because firstly these numbers are not readily available to me (from the plane maker/manufacturing site) and secondly I assume that the plane take-off time is relatively short compared to whole cruising time. This could be true for the long-distance (may be more than 600km above?) or cross-continental flight, but the take-off period will be significantly mean something for shorter distance. And the calculation below might show you how…

Scandinavian Airlines (SAS) has this webpage which can be used to calculate your CO2 emission for the flight you take and offer you to buy carbon offset. Well, the latter part is not my point here, and I am just conveniently borrowing their readily available calculator to show that how short distance flight emit more CO2 than the long-distance flight.

Here, I am using Helsinki (HEL) as my base. The places I choose are: Oslo (OSL), Stockhol (ARN), Kuopio (KUO), JFK Airport, New York (JFK), Jyväskylä (JYV) and London Heathrow Airport (LHR). The table below here shows the cabin factor [CF] (%), distance (km) and CO2 produced in kg. Since the cabin factor and type of aircraft is same in each class, CO2 per km is easily calculated:

In the first group (Avro RJ85-small plane), a person who take the trip from Helsinki to Oslo with a CF 71% produced 147kg CO2 while flying from Helsinki to Kuopio (a shorter distance) on the same plane and CF will emit 89kg CO2. By comparing CO2 per km factor, trip to Oslo is emitting only 0.193 kg CO2 per km while 0.266 kg CO2 per km to Kuopio, an almost 1.38 times higher than Oslo trip.

Another example is taking KF average aircraft group. A flight to Heathrow London emits 0.133 kg CO2 per km for long distance, but on shorter distance like flying from Helsinki to Jyväskylä emit 0.272 kg CO2 per km distance travelled, which is 2x the number for Hel-London trip!

Now, it is quite obvious to note the relationship of distance travelled is inverse with CO2 emission kg per km. What if I want to fly to New York from Helsinki? That is 6602km away. SAS gave a different average CF for this flight: 88%. That is higher than the other flight in compared here (71%). To make it an apple-to-apple comparison:

Total CO2 emission for flight with 88% CF (or let’s say 88 persons):

          Total CO2 = 88 x 462 kg = 40 656 kg 

Total CO2 emission is the same for flight with 88% CF or 71% CF, therefore CO2 emission person in 71% CF (or 71 persons) flight:

          CO2 per person = 40 656 kg ÷ 71 = 572.6 kg

Therefore the CO2 emission per km is: 572.6 kg ÷ 6602 km = 0.087 kg CO2 per km for flying from Helsinki to New York.

In terms of absolute number, long distance flight inevitably produces more CO2 compared to the short one. However, if we take the CO2 emission per km as a fair comparison, short distance flight is shown to be less CO2 environmentally friendly. And my great suspect would be that the plane take off phase as I mentioned earlier in the beginning of this post, becomes significant especially for short-distance flight (e.g. 10 minutes take-off in 40 min. vs 400 min. flight). Could the altitude which the plane fly influence on the fuel efficiency as well? (short flight -> low altitude -> higher air density-> higher friction -> higher fuel consumption?)

P/S: SAS webpage says something about the accuracy in their CO2 calculator – The estimation of aircraft emissions is still not a perfect science and is subject to debate. Actual emission levels for each flight are dependent on operating parameters like load onboard, flight profile, temperature, winds, fuel and engine/aircraft characteristics. Assumed flight average and calculation method can vary from operator to operator, making comparisons difficult.

Math! How much CO2 is released by Aeroplane?

Another math time! 😀

After car, another transport vehicle which under the sportlight of GW issue is aeroplane. Thus, this time I set out to search for how much CO2 is emitted by plane flight.

According to Energy Information Association of US, the emission coefficient of greenhouse gases for certain type of fuel is listed. Among the fuels which associated with aviation are:

  1. Aviation Gasoline: 18.355 pounds CO2 per gallon or 2.199 kg CO2 per liter.
  2. Jet Fuel: 21.095 pounds CO2 per gallon or 2.527 kg CO2 per liter.
  3. Kerosene: 21.537 pounds CO2 per gallon or 2.580 kg CO2 per liter.

Most of the jet or commercial plane is using kerosene. Thus, the CO2 emission coefficient value of 2.58 kg/L will be used for all the calculation below.

Let’s assume that a person is about to travel for a distance of 1000 km. With this distance, how much CO2 will be emitted if he is:

1. Taking a private jet, Bombardier Learjet 45 Super-Light Business Jet.

  • Normal cruise speed = 846 km/h
  • Fuel consumption at average cruise = 579 L/h
  • Passenger capacity = 9 (max)
  • Fuel consumption per km = 579 ÷ 846 = 0.684 L/km

Thus, CO2 emission rate = 0.684 x 2.580 = 1.766 kg/km

2. Taking Airbus series, like

    a) Airbus A321

  • Cruising speed = 853 km/h
  • Fuel consumption = 3000 L/h
  • Passenger capacity = 189 (max)
  • Fuel consumption per km = 3000 ÷ 853 = 3.517 L/km

Thus, CO2 emission rate = 3.517 x 2.580 = 9.074 kg/km

    b) Airbus A320

  • Cruising speed = 853 km/h
  • Fuel consumption = 3025 L/h
  • Passenger capacity = 150 (max)
  • Fuel consumption per km = 3025 ÷ 853 = 3.546 L/km

Thus, CO2 emission rate = 3.546 x 2.580 = 9.149 kg/km

3. Taking Boeing series

    a) 737-400

  • Cruising speed = 809 km/h
  • Fuel consumption = 2377 kg/h or 2935 L/h (kerosene density = 0.81 kg/L)
  • Passenger capacity = 168 (max)
  • Fuel consumption per km = 2935 ÷ 809 = 3.628 L/km

Thus, CO2 emission rate = 3.628 x 2.580 = 9.360 kg/km

    b) 737-600

  • Cruising speed = 853 km/h
  • Fuel consumption = 1932 kg/h or 2385 L/h (kerosene density = 0.81 kg/L)
  • Passenger capacity = 145 (max)
  • Fuel consumption per km = 2385 ÷ 853 = 2.796 L/km

Thus, CO2 emission rate = 2.796 x 2.580 = 7.214 kg/km

    c) 747-400

  • Cruising speed = 910 km/h
  • Passenger capacity = 409 (max)
  • Fuel consumption per km = 11.875  L/km (5 gallon per mile)

Thus, CO2 emission rate = 11.875 x 2.580 = 30.638 kg/km

4. Taking SAS Airline. SAS Blue Airline offer the emission calculator which can be used to find out the CO2 emission for 3 types of flight: RJ100, RJ85 and MD90.

    a) RJ100

  • Passenger capacity = 99 (max)
  • Distance travelled = 1846 km (assuming from Helsinki to London Heathrow)
  • Fuel burned = 7442 L
  • CO2 emission = 18754 kg

Thus, CO2 emission rate = 18754 ÷ 1846 = 10. 159 kg/km

    b) RJ185

  • Passenger capacity = 84 (max)
  • Distance travelled = 1846 km (assuming from Helsinki to London Heathrow)
  • Fuel burned = 6904 L
  • CO2 emission = 17398 kg

Thus, CO2 emission rate = 17398 ÷ 1846 = 9.425 kg/km

    c) MD90

  • Passenger capacity = 166 (max)
  • Distance travelled = 1846 km (assuming from Helsinki to London Heathrow)
  • Fuel burned = 8461 L
  • CO2 emission = 21269 kg

Thus, CO2 emission rate = 21269 ÷ 1846 = 11.522 kg/km

All these emission rate will be normalized to the CO2 per person who travel 1000 km, on various type of aeroplanes. And assuming the average cabin factor of 70% (i.e. 70% out of full passenger capacity), the comparison is made in the table below:

So, a range of 68.7 to 159.7 kg of CO2 is emitted for the same travelling distance, 1000km, depending on type of plane a person takes.

On another note, remember my ex-small compact car, Kelisa? On average, Kelisa emits 121g CO2 per km. For 1000km, 121kg of CO2 will emitted by this car. However, if it is more than 1 person in the same car, the CO2 emission per person will be reduced and smaller value than the plane.

Math! How much can the tree or forest sequester CO2?

Yes, I am intrigued by such question: how much really a tree or forest can capture or sequester the CO2 released anthropogenically (fossil fuel and natural gas being the primary target)?

Thus, I set out to search for the calculations, and awared that a lot of people are using tree/plant for CO2 sequesteration program, like in the carbon offset bussiness. This whole bussiness thing is a complex one, and my question is relatively a simple or crude one: how much CO2 is absorbed or sequestered by tree/plant or forest in a quantitative way?

Few values or data related to this field are found. Let’s start with the number from established organization like Environmental Protection Agency, US:

Claim#1: Afforestation: 0.6 to 2.6 metric tons of C per acre per year.
             Reforestation: 0.3 – 2.1 metric tons of C per acre per year.

Next, in this report, it is claimed that:

Claim#2 (a): … 1 m3 of growth in forest biomass (stem, roots, branches, etc.) absorbs 0.26 tCe (Brown et al., 1986), … the average rate of growth is 15 m3/ha/year. And,

Claim#2 (b): This is equivalent to 815 million (m^3) bone-dry tonnes of wood, which in turn corresponds to 0.41 GtCe.

Claim#2 (c): Assuming a yield for hardwoods of 35 m3/ha/year, this would mean sequestering about 9 tCe of CO2 /ha/year.

According this paper:

Claim#3: In addition, the rate of C sequestration based on biomass change in vegetation was recorded to assess the optimum land use that can absorb the carbon dioxide emitted by the power project. These are as follows: (a) tree plantations (10.09 tC/ha/yr) >coconut (4.78 tC/ha/yr) >brushland (4.29 tC/ha/yr) > (b) natural forest (0.92 tC/ha/yr).

Ok, now it is time to make all these data comparable, if possible:

Thus, let’s say if I need to plant the tree to capture or sequester the CO2 which spewed by my car, as calculated here, with a daily mileage of 25km and emitted roughly 1104.1 kg CO2, or 301.1 kg of Carbon equivalent (1 tonne Carbon equivalent = 3.667 tonnes CO2) per year, I would need:

Claim#1 (a): Afforestation area = 0.301 ÷ 3.633 = 0.0828 ha = 828 m^2.

Claim#1 (b): Afforestation area = 0.301 ÷ 15.873 = 0.0190 ha = 190 m^2.

Claim#2 (c): Hardwood plant area = 0.301 ÷ 9.00 = 0.0334 ha = 334 m^2 .

Claim#3 (a): Tree plantation area = 0.301 ÷ 10.09 = 0.030 ha = 300 m^2.

Claim#3 (b): Natural forest area = 0.301 ÷ 0.920 = 0.327 ha = 3270 m^2.

Claim#2 (a): Biomass volume required = 0.301 ÷ 0.260 = 1.157 m^3.

Claim#2 (b): Biomass volume of bone-dry woods required = 0.301 ÷ 0.503 = 0.598 m^3.

So, an area ranging from 190 m^2 to 3270 m^2, depending on the efficiency of carbon sequesteration rate (which in turn a lot of factors are playing in) is required to absorb/capture the amount of CO2 emitted via my car. I wonder how much do I have to spend if I bought the land in Malaysia in order to do this? And if 26 millions of Malaysians need to do this, how much land area is required, per year? Hmmmm….

Math! CO2 Emission by my ex-car – Kelissa GXi SE

Yup, it was the same car which trashed by Jeremy Clarkson (I think, not sure about the model though :P).

But this is not the main theme of this post. Rather, I am interested to find out how much CO2 had I spewed out for the past 3.5 years, during my ownership of Kelisa.

According this link, Kelissa GXi SE emits 121 g CO2 per km (one of the lowest CO2 emission you can get from the vehicles available around the automobile market?). I forgot what was my car mileage before I sold it off, but if I put it 2 scenarios: a) worst case scenario – roughly around 10 000 km for every 3 months (as the car maintenance/service requirement). Or b) normal scenario – everyday I travel about 25km. Thus, my CO2 emission was (approximately):

a) Annual CO2 emission = 0.121 kg x 40 000 km = 4840 kg

                                           or

b) Annual CO2 emission = 0.121 kg x 25 km x 365 days = 1104. 125 kg

And according to World Bank’s report on world CO2 emission per capita for year 2002, on average Malaysian emitted 6.32 metric tons per capita, or 6320 kg CO2 per year.

For scenario (a), wow my car alone accounted to almost 76.6% of total CO2 emission per capita, on my share! The figure from (a) is quite unlikely for me because for me to use up all 10 000 km mileage in 3 months, on average I will be travelling 109.9 km per day. Or (b)  CO2 emission from my beloved kelisa only take up 18.0% of my personal CO2 quota  😛

More, some CO2 emissin data for other Malaysia-made cars:

  • GEN2 1.3 GLS = 164 g/km (or extra 35.5% of Kelissa’s CO2 emission)
  • GEN2 1.6 GLS/X (Manual) = 172 g/km (42.1% extra)
  • GEN2 1.6 GLS/X (Auto) = 176 g/km (45.5%)
  • Proton Savvy = 134 g/km (10.7%)
  • Proton Impian 1.6 GLS (Manual) = 167 g/km (38.0%)
  • Proton Impian 1.6 GLS (Auto) = 172 g/km

More CO2 emission by car can be found here.

Math! How much CH4 is released by Sheep around the World?

Cow is not the only ruminant livestock which produce CH4 gas, though it is a major one. Other livestock is generating CH4 as well, and I shall check up each one of them (if I could find the neccessary information :P). How much of CH4 is emitted throughout these livestocks each year?

For time being, let’s look at sheep. After some googling, 2 claims for sheep (so far) are found.

Claim#1: Individual sheep emission rates were highly variable and averaged 19.5 ± 4.8 (SD) g CH4 per sheep per day. (source here)

Thus, a sheep can produce 7.12 kg of CH4 per year.

And, claim#2: New Zealand`s 70 million sheep create 350 million methane gallons daily. (source here)

70 million sheeps for 350 million gallons methane, 5 gallons CH4 per sheep per day, or equivalent to 18.93 L of CH4.

Divide by standard volume molar (22.414 L/mol), the weight of CH4 produced by sheep per day = 0.844 mol x 16 g (CH4 molecular weight) = 13.51 g per day.

In a year, a sheep is producing 4.93 kg CH4. And this value is lower than the claim#1.

As of year 2003, there is around 1 billion, or 1 024 070 182 sheeps (not including the sheep for milk) around the world. Thus, the total annual CH4 emission by sheeps for:

Claim#1: Total CH4 = 1 024 070 182 x 7.12 kg = 7.291 million tonnes.

Claim#2: Total CH4 = 1 024 070 182 x 4.93 kg = 5.049 million tonnes.

Apparently sheep is not emitting much CH4, compared to cow/cattle.

source: FAO, Global Livestock Production and Health Atlas

Math! How much CO2 is released by Dairy Cow?

Yes, I did it on CO2 emission by human being, CH4 emission by dairy cow, and this time: CO2 by dairy cow! Yes, dairy cow, just like any other animal being, do respiration, and exhale CO2 as well.

From this paper, the lactating cows are emitting 6137 ± 505 L CO2 per day (before correcting the gas emission from manure) or 5756L (value#1) per day (after substraction of CO2 emission from manure). The value of CO2 emission from some other references is cited in the same paper as well: 4940L (value#2), 5396L (value#3) and 6515L (value#4) per day.  These 4 values will be used to calculate how much CO2 is released by all the dairy cows in the world in 1 year and is shown with the table below:

And compared this value to human being on earth (as of year 2007), human population is breathing about 1362 million tonnes (case#1) or 2618 million tonnes (case#2) CO2 per year. By comparing the numbers here, dairy cow is pretty much catching up with human being, even though their number 0.238 billion is far less than human population, 6.6 billion.

Math! How much CH4 is released by Dairy Cow?

After cattle/beef cow, now let’s move on to dairy/milking/lactating cow. There are few papers found on the data of CH4 emission by dairy cow.

  1. According to this paper‘s finding (paper#1), dairy cow is measured releasing 587 ± 61.3 L CH4 per day. And compared to the values obtained from other references cited: 420L, 500L, 552L and 560L.
  2. According to this paper (paper#2), the lactating Holstein dairy cows produced 458.7g CH4 per day.
  3. According to this paper from India (paper#3), (i) the milking crossbred cattle produced 106.4g CH4 per day while (ii) the milking indigenous cattle emitted 98.57g CH4 per day.

According o FAO’s statistic, there are 237 928 359 (238 millions) milked cow around the world in 2003.  Thus, the total CH4/methane emission by dairy cow around the world with the summary of all the number above is listed in the table below:

source: FAO, Global Livestock Production and Health Atlas, 2003

Math! How much CH4 is released by Cattle/Beef Cow? (Part II)

More CH4 emission by cattle or beef cow is found! Thefore, I shall continue from the previous post from here.

Claim#3: according to this paper, beef cow produces 262L CH4 per day.

1L CH4 weigh about 0.714g. Thus, the weight of CH4 in 262L CH4 gas is about 187.03g per day.

Or 68.26 kg per year.

Claim#4: from this paper (citing another referecence), “…the average daily CH4 emissions predicted from this SF6 technique (11.6 ± 0.7 L h-1) were similar to those measured using open circuit respiration calorimetry (12.9 ± 0.7 L h-1)”.  

So 2 very close numbers are obtained: (4-a) 11.6L per hour and (4-b) 12.9L per hour. Total CH4 by weight in a year:

Thus, CH4 annual emission by weight is (4-a) 72.54kg or (4-b) 80.67kg.

Claim#5: CH4 from livestock in India is listed in this paper. Methane gas emitted from various type of cattles can be found, and the summary is listed in the table below.

Thus, CH4 emission is (5-a) 36.31kg and (5-b) 32.95kg. Noted that the value here is comparitively much lower than the other value from claim#1-4.

To calculate the total CH4 emission from 1.33 billion cattle/beef cow around the world in 1 year:

Claim#3: Total CH4 = 1.33 x 10^9 x 68.26 kg = 90.78 million tonnes.

Claim#4-a: Total CH4 = 1.33 x 10^9 x 72.54 kg = 96.48 million tonnes.

Claim#4-b: Total CH4 = 1.33 x 10^9 x 80.67 kg = 107.29 million tonnes.

Claim#5-a: Total CH4 = 1.33 x 10^9 x 36.31 kg = 48.29 million tonnes.

Claim#5-b: Total CH4 = 1.33 x 10^9 x 32.95 kg = 43.82 million tonnes.

Combining all the claims found so far, the summary of total CH4 emission by cattle/beef cow in year 2003 is listed in the table below:

Math! How much CH4 is released by Cattle/Beef Cow?

Math time again! 🙂

This time, I am set out to find how much CH4 is released by cow, or cattle around the world. Total cows/cattle in the world, according to FAO, in year 2003 is around 1 331 526 305. Note that this number does not include the dairy cow, or the cow for milking purpose.

Next, the quantity of CH4 gas emitted by a cow/cattle is searched. So far there are 2 claims, and may be more will be found in the future.

Claim#1:  according to wikipedia,

An average cow is thought to emit between 542 litres (if located in a barn) and 600 litres (if in a field) of methane per day through burping and flatulence, making commercially farmed cattle a major contributor to the greenhouse effect.

Let’s say the adult cow emits 550L of CH4 per day. Divide by standard volume molar (22.414 L/mol), the number of mole of CH4 is 24.538 mol.

Thus, the weight of CH4 = 24.538 x 0.016 kg = 0.3926 kg per day.

Or, 143.3 kg CH4 per year.

Claim#2: according to US Enviromental Protection Agency,

An adult cow … emitting only 80-110 kg of methane (annually).

It is noted that claim#1 is almost 43% higher than claim#2, if the value of 100kg per year is assumed.

Therefore, total CH4 released by cattle/cow annually in weight for year 2003 is:

Claim#1: Total CH4 = 143.3 x 1 331 526 305 = 190.81 x 10^9 kg = 190.81 million tonnes.

Claim#2: Total CH4 = 100 x 1 331 526 305 = 133.15 x 10^9 kg = 133.15 million tonnes.

More livestock’s impact on environment can be read from UN’s news release and the report.

source: FAO, Global Livestock Production and Health Atlas.

Math! How much CO2 by weight in the atmosphere?

According to wikipedia (CO2):

As of January 2007, the earth’s atmospheric CO2 concentration is about 0.0383% by volume (383 ppmv) or 0.0582% by weight. This represents about 2.996×1012 tonnes, and is estimated to be 105 ppm (37.77%) above the pre-industrial average.

CO2 concentration by weight is obtained by the formula below:

0.0383 V% x [44.0095/28.97] = 0.0582 m% CO2

whereby molar mass=44.0095 g/mole
and mean molar mass of air=28.97 g/mole

Then, to obtain the total mass of CO2, via wikipedia: according to the National Center for Atmospheric Research, “The total mean mass of the atmosphere is 5.1480×1018 kg.

Thus, the total weight of CO2 = 0.0582% x 5.1480 x 1015 tonnes
  = 2.996×1012 tonnes.

By applying the same formula, 4 other different values of CO2 concentration at different timeline as listed in the table below. Year 1750 is used for pre-industrial era (Industrial Revolution), 310 ppmv is obtained via the graph in 1960, and 2 predictions for year 2100 done by IPCC. The corresponding CO2 by total weight is calculated.

      

From year 1750 to 1960, additional 250 000 million tonnes CO2, or at the rate of 1190.48 million tonnes per year are added into atmosphere.

From year 1960 to 2007, another 570 000 million tonnes of CO2 are dumped into atmosphere, at much higher rate: 12127.7 million tonnes per year, which is about 10 times faster than the previous 2 centuries!

As of year 2002, human activities, especially fuel burning released 24,126.1 million tonnes of CO2 per year. This number is twice (2x) higher the rate calculated above. Could it mean that half of the CO2 released by human activity is managed to absorbed by carbon sink agents and thus not accounted into the CO2 concentration reading?

Let’s look at the future. IPCC gave 2 scenarios of the CO2 concentration (ppmv) by the year of 2100, 93 years away.

  • To achieve 571 ppmv, the additional CO2 needed to add into atmosphere is 1.235 ×1012 tonnes, or 13 279.6 million tonnes per year. This is half of the rate of CO2 we are releasing today.
  • To achieve 970 ppmv CO2 concentration, 4.558 x 1012 tonnes CO2, or 49 333.3 million tonnes per year is released.  This is twice (2x) the number on CO2 emission rate  what we are doing today!         

Another perspective of looking at these numbers. At 2002, human activity released 24 216.1 million tonnes of CO2.  Compared to the total CO2 mass in year 1750 (assuming it is in the state of equilibrium by then), that is accounted only 1.11%.  What could this number mean?

Math! How much CO2 is emitted by human on earth annually?

Another math time! 🙂

And again, it is closely related to GW area.

Currently (as of year 2007), human population on earth is 6.6 billion (via wikipedia). I went around to look for how much CO2 is exhaled out per person, and 2 claims were found (both via wikipedia):

claim#1: an average person’s respiration generates approximately 450 liters (roughly 900 grams) of carbon dioxide per day (CO2#Human_physiology)

 I use the standard chemistry textbook theory (standard molar volume) to check this claim, 450L for 900 grams of CO2, and it is tallied.

Thus, the amount of CO2 released by human per day is 0.9 kg/day

claim#2: In an average resting adult, the lungs take up about 250ml of oxygen every minute while excreting about 200ml of carbon dioxide. (Respiratory_system)

So, 200 ml per minute and thus 200 ml x 60 X 24 = 288L

Or equivalent to 565.36g/per day = 0.565 kg/day (after divide with standard molar volume constant and times with CO2 molar weight).

Apparently claim#2 has lower CO2 emission compared to claim#1, but I will use both anyway to show the comparison.

So, if there is 6.6 billion people out there and excreting CO2 at the rate of 0.9 or 0.565 kg/day, the total CO2 emission by human alone annually is:

claim#1: CO2 emission = 0.90 X 365 x 6 600 000 000

                                         = 2.168 x 10^9 tonnes/year

claim#2: CO2 emission = 0.565 x 365 x 6 600 000 000

                                          = 1.362 x 10^9 tonnes/year

But human activities, through the fossil fuel burning activities, releases 24.136 x 10^9 tonnes per year (via wikipedia).

So, human breathing process contribute to about 8.99% (claim#1) or 5.65% (claim#2) compared to the fuel burning related CO2.

Conclusion? May be stop breathing does not really help in reducing CO2 emission! 😛

Math! How much water is required to raise sea level by 20 feet (6m)?

🙂 Just a math time for myself to think through…
Some said (you probably know who :P), by some time in the future (am not sure whether the time is specifically given out or not), global warming (GW) might cause sea level to rise another 20 feet (6m). I am curious to know how much ice sheet thickness (or how much water) is required to raise 6m sea, just by a simple reverse calculation.
Essential information (via Wikipedia, my ever reliable companion!):

                              Area (km^2) 

Antartica               13,720,000 (ice-covered area)
Ocean                    361,000,000
US (land)               9,631,420
Malaysia (land)      329,647

#1: The water volume to raise sea level by 6m

      = 0.006 (km) x 361,000,000 km^2
      = 2.166 x 10^6 km^3

So, if the ice sheet is as big as…

i) Malaysia:

                The thickness of ice sheet to be melted = (2.166 x 10^6)/(329 847)
                                                                      = 6.567km or 6567m!

ii) US:  

                The thickness of ice sheet to be melted = (2.166 x 10^6)/9 631 420
                                                                      = 224.9m!

iii) Antartic:

                The thickness of ice sheet to be melted = (2.166 x 10^6)/13 720 000
                                                                      = 0.158km = 157.9m

Let’s assume 2 time frame is given for such scenario is given and ice sheet melting rate is constant, a) 50 years and b) 100 years.

a) For ice sheet in whole area of Antartic to lose 157.9m in 50 years,

                                       Rate = 157.9 m/50 y = 3.158 m/y = 8.65mm per day

b) happen in 100 years? 8.65mm/day divide by 2 = 4.32 mm/day

For a) or b) to happen, obvious assumptions as below are made:
1- the whole area of Antartica is melting, i.e. 13,720,000 km^2.
2- the rate of melting is constant throughout 50 or 100 years (and in turn assuming the heat input for ice melting is consistent).
3- ice sheet melting away is a one-way process, no ice sheet will be formed.

More to check out Sea Level Rise from Wikipedia, and some data on ice sheet, glaciers and etc on Earth.