Average Math Score for Grade-Eighth Student, 2007 by Country (TIMSS)

Grade 8, Average score by Country

OECD: Early School Leaver 2005 vs. 2006

Comparison among Developed Countries for year 2005, 2006

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OECD: Female Graduates in Social/Behavioral Sciences 2004

Let’s look at the percentage of female graduates (both in first degree and doctoral degree) in social and behavioral sciences in OECD countries for year 2004:

a) % of female in first degree of social/behavioral sciences:
Country / Social, behavioral sciences
Ireland — 73.0
Portugal — 70.7
Finland — 70.1
Belgium — 68.1
Australia — 67.8
Sweden — 67.5
France — 67.4
Switzerland — 67.0
Spain — 66.6
Taiwan (2005) — 66.2
Canada — 65.9
New Zealand — 65.2
Italy — 64.5
United Kingdom — 64.3
Austria — 63.8
United States — 63.2
Iceland — 62.8
Hungary — 62.3
Greece — 62.0
Netherlands — 59.9
Norway — 58.4
Denmark — 55.8
South Korea — 49.1
Germany — 46.8
Japan — 24.3

b) % of female in doctoral degrees of social/behavioral sciences:
Country / Social, behavioral sciences
New Zealand — 68.2
Portugal — 63.2
Finland — 61.6
Canada — 58.4
United Kingdom — 55.9
Australia — 55.0
United States — 54.5
Austria — 54.5
Ireland — 54.2
Italy — 53.8
Spain — 53.0
Norway — 50.6
Switzerland — 50.0
Greece — 48.7
Belgium — 47.3
France — 44.2
Netherlands — 41.8
Sweden — 41.6
Denmark — 38.2
Germany — 36.3
Taiwan (2005) — 31.5
Japan — 30.0
South Korea — 29.5

Source: National Science Foundation, Science and Engineering Indicators 2008

OECD: Female Graduates in Engineering 2004

Let’s look at the percentage of female graduates (both in first degree and doctoral degree) in engineering in OECD countries for year 2004:

a) % of female in first degree of engineering field:
Country / Engineering
Greece — 45.3
Portugal — 36.0
New Zealand — 32.2
Spain — 30.9
Sweden — 29.3
Iceland — 29.1
Italy — 28.0
South Korea — 25.1
France — 24.6
Hungary — 24.5
Denmark — 24.3
Australia — 24.3
Canada — 23.0
Ireland — 22.8
Norway — 22.7
Belgium — 22.0
Finland — 21.7
United States — 20.5
Austria — 19.1
United Kingdom — 15.6
Germany — 15.2
Switzerland — 13.3
Taiwan (2005) — 13.2
Netherlands — 12.9
Japan — 10.1

b) % of female in doctoral degrees in engineering field:
Country / Engineering
Norway — 50.0
Portugal — 35.6
Italy — 31.2
Ireland — 28.7
Denmark — 27.9
Spain — 27.9
France — 25.9
Sweden — 25.9
Finland — 25.5
Australia — 23.9
Netherlands — 23.4
Greece — 21.0
Switzerland — 20.4
Belgium — 20.2
United Kingdom — 20.1
Austria — 18.6
United States — 17.6
Canada — 15.4
New Zealand — 14.0
Germany — 12.3
South Korea — 10.5
Japan — 10.1
Taiwan (2005) — 6.3

Source: National Science Foundation, Science and Engineering Indicators 2008  

OECD: Female Graduates in Mathematics, Computer Sciences 2004

Let’s look at the percentage of female graduates (both in first degree and doctoral degree) in mathematics and computer sciences in OECD countries for year 2004:

a) % of female in first degree of mathematics and computer sciences:
Country / Mathematics, computer sciences
South Korea — 42.6
Italy — 42.5
Finland — 42.0
Sweden — 41.1
Portugal — 41.0
Greece — 40.2
Taiwan (2005) — 36.1
France — 33.6
Canada — 29.6
New Zealand — 29.5
Hungary — 29.5
Ireland — 29.2
United States — 29.1
Spain — 28.5
Germany — 27.5
Australia — 27.2
Iceland — 27.1
United Kingdom — 26.7
Denmark — 19.7
Austria — 19.5
Norway — 18.9
Belgium — 17.8
Switzerland — 12.0
Netherlands — 10.8

b) % of female in doctoral degree of mathematics and computer sciences:
Country / Mathematics, computer sciences
Portugal — 39.6
Italy — 38.4
New Zealand — 36.4
South Korea — 31.9
Spain — 29.8
Sweden — 29.4
Denmark — 26.0
United States — 24.8
Australia — 23.5
United Kingdom — 22.7
Finland — 22.7
France — 21.0
Ireland — 19.4
Germany — 18.6
Canada — 18.1
Belgium — 17.9
Switzerland — 17.0
Greece — 15.9
Taiwan (2005) — 15.7
Austria — 8.5
Japan — NA
Netherlands — NA
Norway — NA

Source: National Science Foundation, Science and Engineering Indicators 2008

OECD: Female Graduates in All Science and Engineering Field 2004

Let’s look at the percentage of female graduates (first degrees) in all science and engineering field in OECD countries for year 2004:

% of female in first degree of all science and engineering field:
Country / All S&E fields
Portugal — 52.4
Greece — 51.2
Canada — 50.6
United States — 50.4
Iceland — 46.3
New Zealand — 46.1
Italy — 44.5
France — 43.4
United Kingdom — 43.1
Australia — 42.5
Spain — 42.4
Sweden — 42.1
Hungary — 41.6
Belgium — 40.6
Ireland — 40.4
Germany — 37.4
Austria — 36.9
Denmark — 35.9
Finland — 35.5
Norway — 35.2
South Korea — 34.0
Netherlands — 33.3
Switzerland — 30.6
Taiwan (2005) — 27.2
Japan — 20.9

Source: National Science Foundation, Science and Engineering Indicators 2008

OECD: Science and Engineering Doctoral Degrees 2004

A look at the contribution of science and engineering doctoral degrees as a percentage of total new doctoral degrees in respective OECD countries in year 2004:

a) % of Science and Engineering doctoral degrees from all fields:
Greece – 69.9
Denmark – 67.4
France – 66.3
United States – 62.3
Sweden – 62.2
Belgium – 61.3
Italy – 60.4
Ireland – 60.2
United Kingdom – 60.0
Canada – 58.6
Portugal – 57.0
Netherlands – 55.9
New Zealand – 54.1
Australia – 54.0
Finland – 51.3
Japan – 48.1
Germany – 47.0
Austria – 45.3
Spain – 45.0
South Korea – 44.4
Switzerland – 43.4
Norway – 16.4

b) % of Females awarded with doctoral degrees in Science and Engineering:
Portugal – 50.8
Norway – 48.4
Italy – 46.8
New Zealand 46.3
Spain – 45.6
Ireland – 41.6
Australia – 40.5
Finland – 40.4
United Kingdom – 38.1
France – 37.5
United States – 37.4
Canada – 35.9
Netherlands – 33.4
Austria – 33.4
Sweden – 33.3
Greece – 32.0
Switzerland – 31.7
Belgium – 30.6
Germany – 30.4
Denmark – 28.6
Japan – 17.1
South Korea – 16.1
Taiwan (2005) – 14.2

Source: National Science Foundation, Science and Engineering Indicators 2008

OECD: Science and Engineering Degrees 2004

A look at the contribution of science and engineering degrees ss a percentage of total new degrees in respective OECD countries in year 2004:

a) Science degrees:
Greece — 22.3
United Kingdom (2003) — 18.7
France — 16.1
Ireland — 14.7
Germany — 14.3
Australia — 14.3
New Zealand — 13.9
Switzerland — 12.1
Canada — 11.6
Portugal — 11.6
Belgium — 11.5
Korea — 11.5
Iceland — 11.4
Austria — 11.3
Mexico — 10.8
China — 10.3
Slovak Republic — 10.1
Spain — 10.0
South Africa (2003) — 9.7
Sweden — 9.2
Finland — 9.1
Denmark — 8.7
United States — 8.3
Russia — 8.2
Turkey — 8.0
Czech Republic — 7.9
Norway — 7.9
Italy — 7.4
Netherlands — 7.1
Brazil — 7.1
Poland — 5.2
Japan — 4.8
Hungary — 3.7

b) Engineering degrees:
China — 28.9
Korea — 27.1
Sweden — 22.5
Finland — 20.8
Japan — 20.2
Czech Republic — 16.6
Russia — 16.6
Germany — 16.5
Slovak Republic — 15.9
Austria — 15.7
Italy — 15.5
Spain — 14.9
Mexico — 14.6
Switzerland — 13.0
Portugal — 12.6
France — 12.4
Belgium — 11.5
Denmark — 9.6
Turkey — 9.3
United Kingdom (2003) — 9.2
Netherlands — 9.0
Ireland — 8.7
Norway — 8.3
Canada — 7.8
Hungary — 7.2
Australia — 7.1
Poland — 7.1
South Africa (2003) — 6.7
United States — 6.4
Iceland — 5.6
Greece — 5.2
New Zealand — 5.0
Brazil — 4.0

Source:
OECD Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard 2007, Human resources in S&T – B-1. New university graduates

OECD: Engineering Doctoral Degrees 2004

A look at the contribution of engineering doctoral degrees  as a percentage of total new doctoral degrees for selected OECD countries in year 2004:

a) % Engineering PhD from all doctoral awards:  
Denmark – 47.7
Taiwan (2005) – 35.0
Sweden – 28.6
South Korea – 25.7
Japan – 22.1
Finland – 19.5
Italy – 18.5
Netherlands – 18.0
Austria – 16.3
Ireland – 15.8
Portugal – 14.6
United States – 13.7
United Kingdom – 13.4
Canada – 13.1
Australia – 12.3
Switzerland – 10.8
France – 9.3
Greece – 9.2
Germany – 8.5
Spain – 7.4
New Zealand – 6.9
Belgium – 6.0
Norway – 0.8

Source: National Science Foundation, Science and Engineering Indicators 2008

OECD: Female Students in Tertiary Level Education – 2000 and 2005

From the data found in Statistic Finland – World Figure, the % of females students in tertiary level education for year 2000 and 2005 in OECD and Malaysia are:

Female tertiary students, %
Country / 2000 / 2005
Australia — 54.3 – 54.5
Austria — 51.0 – 53.7
Belgium — 52.3 – 54.4
Canada — 56.0 – NA
China — NA – 46.6
Czech Republic — 49.8 – 52.6
Denmark — 56.9 – 57.4
Finland — 53.7 – 53.6
France — 54.2 – 55.2
Greece — 50.0 – 51.1
Hong Kong — NA – 51.0
Iceland — 61.9 – 64.5
Ireland — 54.1 – 54.9
Italy — 55.5 – 56.6
Japan — 44.9 – 45.9
South Korea — 35.2 – 36.8
Luxembourg — 51.7 – NA
Malaysia — 51.0 – NA
Mexico — 48.7 – 50.3
Netherlands — 50.0 – 51.0
New Zealand — 58.8 – 58.7
Norway — 58.4 – 59.6
Portugal — 56.5 – 55.7
South Africa — 55.3 – 54.6
Spain — 52.9 – 53.7
Sweden — 58.2 – 59.6
Switzerland — 42.6 – 46.0
UK — 53.9 – 57.2
US — 55.8 – 57.2

OECD: Tertiary Students Per 100 000 Population, 2000 and 2005

From the data found in Statistic Finland – World Figure, the number of students in tertiary level education per 100 000 population for year 2000 and 2005 in OECD and Malaysia are:

Tertiary Students per 100 000 habitants
Country / 2000 , 2005 ( % of Increment )
Australia — 4416 , 5053 ( 14.42 )
Austria — 3233 , 2986 ( -7.64 )
Belgium — 3471 , 3759 ( 8.30 )
Canada — 3941 , NA
China — 578 , 1633 ( 182.53 )
Czech Republic — 2470 , 3284 ( 32.96 )
Denmark — 3556 , 4276 ( 20.25 )
Finland — 5224 , 5834 ( 11.68 )
France — 3402 , 3606 ( 6.00 )
Germany — 2631 , NA
Greece — 3980 , 6061 ( 52.29 )
Hong Kong — NA , 2207
Iceland — 3465 , 5229 ( 50.91 )
Ireland — 4223 , 4645 ( 9.99 )
Italy — 3077 , 3468 ( 12.71 )
Japan — 3133 , 3169 ( 1.15 )
South Korea — 6072 , 6630 ( 9.19 )
Luxembourg — 558 , NA
Malaysia — 2472 , NA
Mexico — 1985 , 2246 ( 13.15 )
Netherlands — 3074 , 3444 ( 12.04 )
New Zealand — 4552 , 5948 ( 30.67 )
Norway — 4273 , 4658 ( 9.01 )
Portugal — 3731 , 3605 ( -3.38 )
South Africa — 1489 , 1658 ( 11.35 )
Spain — 4583 , 4485 ( -2.14 )
Sweden — 3923 , 4740 ( 20.83 )
Switzerland — 2188 , 2667 ( 21.89 )
UK — 3407 , 3785 ( 11.09 )
US — 4662 , 5840 ( 25.27 )

OECD: Foreign Students 2005

The market share and number of foreign students who studied in OECD countries in year 2005:

Countries of destinations / Market share %, 2005 ( Total from all countries, 2005 )
United States — 21.65 ( 590167 )
United Kingdom — 11.68 ( 318399 )
Germany — 9.53 ( 259797 )
France — 8.68 ( 236518 )
Australia — 6.49 ( 177034 )
Japan — 4.62 ( 125917 )
Canada — 2.76 ( 75249 )
New Zealand — 2.55 ( 69390 )
Spain — 1.67 ( 45603 )
Belgium — 1.66 ( 45290 )
Italy — 1.65 ( 44921 )
Sweden — 1.44 ( 39298 )
Switzerland — 1.35 ( 36827 )
Austria — 1.27 ( 34484 )
Netherlands — 1.16 ( 31584 )
Czech Republic — 0.68 ( 18522 )
Turkey — 0.67 ( 18166 )
Denmark — 0.64 ( 17430 )
Portugal — 0.62 ( 17010 )
Greece — 0.58 ( 15690 )
Korea — 0.57 ( 15497 )
Hungary — 0.50 ( 13601 )
Norway — 0.49 ( 13400 )
Ireland — 0.47 ( 12889 )
Poland — 0.37 ( 10185 )
Finland — 0.31 ( 8442 )
Mexico — 0.07 ( 1892 )
Slovak Republic — 0.06 ( 1678 )
Luxembourg — 0.02 ( 652 )
Iceland — 0.02 ( 484 )

Source: OECD – Education at a Glance 2007 – Indicator C3: Who studies abroad and where?

Malaysia: Where do students study abroad?

In year 2005, there were 42 712 Malaysian students went abroad for study. 38 784 of them chose to study in OECD countries while the rest went to non-OECD countries. Below here shows the breakdown of destinations where Malaysian students chose to go:

Malaysia students go to… / Percentage (%) [ Number (2005) ]
Australia — 36.41 ( 15552 )
United Kingdom — 26.86 ( 11474 )
United States — 15.02 ( 6415 )
Japan — 4.48 ( 1915 )
New Zealand — 2.79 ( 1190 )
Ireland — 2.25 ( 960 )
Germany — 1.33 ( 566 )
France — 0.81 ( 345 )
Korea — 0.50 ( 212 )
Netherlands — 0.09 ( 40 )
Sweden — 0.09 ( 40 )
Finland — 0.03 ( 14 )
Denmark — 0.03 ( 11 )
Switzerland — 0.02 ( 10 )
Belgium — 0.02 ( 9 )
Norway — 0.02 ( 9 )
Spain — 0.01 ( 6 )
Austria — 0.01 ( 5 )
Czech Republic — 0.01 ( 4 )
Hungary — 0.01 ( 4 )
Turkey — 0.00 ( 2 )
Poland — 0.00 ( 1 )
Total OECD destinations : 90.80 ( 38784 )
Total Non-OECD destinations:  9.20 ( 3928 )

Source: OECD Education at a Glance 2007 – Indicator C3: Who studies abroad and where?

OECD: Tertiary Education Expedinture per Student 2003

Expenditure per student in tertiary education among OECD countries, by using 2003 constant prices (USD):

Country 2003
Greece – 4924
Korea – 7089
Portugal – 7200
Iceland – 8023
Italy – 8764
New Zealand – 8832
Spain – 8943
Ireland – 9341
France – 10704
Japan – 11556
Germany – 11594
Belgium – 11824
United Kingdom – 11866
Finland – 12047
Austria – 12344
Australia – 12406
Netherlands – 13444
Norway – 13772
Denmark – 14014
Sweden – 16073
Canada – 19992
United States – 24074
Switzerland – 25900

Source: OECD Factbook 2007 – Education, Expenditure on tertiary education

Europe: Political Left/Right and Satisfaction

Satisfaction and political left/right leaning. A set of questions on the satisfaction level on the items below was asked, and a score ran from 1-11 was given, 1 being extremely dissatisfied and 11 being extremely satisfied. The items included:

  1. How satisfied with the present state of economy in country.
  2. How satisfied with the national government.
  3. How satisfied with the way democracy works in the country.
  4. How satisfied with the state of education in country nowadays.
  5. How satisfied with the state of health services in country nowadays.

A “M” curve is observed for most of the average/mean score result responding to each question above. Apart from the satisfaction level with health services, the score given by the people on the left political-leaning tend to be lower than people on the right. This phenomenon is particularly obvious for the satisfaction score on national government and the way democracy works in the country. People on the center-right (group 7) political placement tends to give highest satisfaction score on every account for the questions asked.

Overall, the satisfaction level decrease with list like: democracy > education > health services > economy > national government.

Source: European Social Survey.

OECD and Malaysia : Public Expenditure on Education

In year 2004, Malaysia govt. spent 8.0% of her GDP on education, or worth as USD9465.5 million. In year 2000, Malaysia spent only 6.2% of her GDP, seeing an increment. US alone spent about 42.5% of the total amount of all OECD countries and Malaysia combined.

source: World Bank, EDSTAT