Europe: Happiness, Life Satisfaction vs Gender, Marital Status

Inspired by this guy’s post (women feeling depressed vs marital status), I turned to European Social Survey (ESS) to have a look on the survey which ask similar (but not the same) questions like:

a) “how happy are you”
b) “life satisfaction” 

The result is then tabulated based by gender and marital status. Males and females from the marital status such as: married, divorced, separated, widowed and never married (total: 41909 subjects) answer on the question “how happy are you?” and “life satisfaction as a whole”. Then the responsdent gave the answer with a scale ran from 1 to 11, 1 being extremely unhappy/dissatisfied and 11 being extremely happy/satisfied. Below here show the mean score of the answer, by marital status and gender:

a) How happy are you?

Marital Status Male Female
Married 8.53 8.60
Separated 7.57 7.62
Divorced 7.90 7.86
Widowed 7.64 7.56
Never married 8.34 8.45

Happiness comparison by marital status (both gender):
married > never married > divorced > widowed > separated.  

Also note that female consistently has positive outlook than male except from the group of divorced and widowed.

b) Life satisfaction as a whole

Marital Status Male Female
Married 8.12 8.18
Separated 7.31 7.15
Divorced 7.54 7.56
Widowed 7.53 7.49
Never married 8.06 8.20

Life satisfaction comparison by marital status (both gender):
married > never married > divorced > separated > widowed.  

As for gender difference, female from the group of married, never married and divorced has higher life satisfaction score compared to male.

Source: The European Social Survey (ESS)

Picture: Murin-an

Murin-an 02.09.2007, originally uploaded by micpohling.

An overview of Murin-an, a garden situated around Heian/Nanzenji area.